Lofoten is an archipelago and a traditional district in the county of Nordland, Norway. Though lying within the Arctic Circle, the archipelago experiences one of the world's largest elevated temperature anomalies relative to its high latitude.Lofoten was originally the old name of the island Vestvågøya. The first element is ló and the last element is derived from Norse fótr, as the shape of the island must have been compared with a foot of a lynx.The sea is rich with life, and the world's largest deep water coral reef is located west of Røst.Lofoten has a very high density of sea eagles and cormorants, and millions of other sea birds, among them the colourful puffin. Otters are common, and there are moose on the largest islands. There are some woodlands with Downy birch and Rowan. There are no native conifer forests in Lofoten, but some small areas with private spruce plantations. Sorbus hybrida and Malus sylvestris occur in Lofoten, but not further north.The animals mistaken as the extinct Great Auk turned out to be some of the nine King penguins released around Norway’s Lofoten Islands in August 1936, there until at least 1944.Lofoten offers many rock climbing and mountaineering opportunities. It has 24 hours of daylight in the summer and has Alpine-style ridges, summits and glaciers, but at a height of less than 1,200 metres. The main centre for rock climbing is Henningsvær on Austvågøya.The main areas for mountaineering and climbing are on Austvågøya and Moskenesøya. Moskenesøya is the most complete area for climbing. For more information, see the books by Dyer and Webster.