South Tyrol also known by its Italian name Alto Adige, is an autonomous province in northern Italy. It is one of the two autonomous provinces that make up the autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. The province has an area of 7,400 square kilometres (2,857 sq mi) and a total population of 511,750 inhabitants (31.12.2011). Its capital is the city of Bolzano (German: Bozen; Ladin: Balsan or Bulsan).
The Atlas Tyrolensis, a map created between 1760 and 1770 showing the entire County of Tyrol
The majority of the population is of Austro-Bavarian heritage and speaks German. Around a quarter of the population speak Italian as their first language, mainly concentrated in and around the two largest cities (Bolzano and Merano), and a small minority speak Ladin as their first language.
South Tyrol is granted a considerable level of self-government, consisting of a large range of exclusive legislative and executive powers and a fiscal regime that allows the province to retain a large part of most levied taxes, while nevertheless remaining a net contributor to the national budget. Today, South Tyrol is among the wealthiest and most developed regions in Italy and the European Union.
In the wider context of the European Union, the province is one of the three members of the Euroregion of Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino, which corresponds almost exactly to the historical region of Tyrol.